*Episode 9: The Virgin of Guadalupe & St. Juan Diego * Brief Chronology: Early 1300s - Marian apparition and founding of shrine for Virgin of Guadalupe of Extremadura in Spain 1474 - Cuauhtlatoatzin ("Eagle that Speaks"), later known as Juan Diego, is born at Cuautitlan in the Texcoco Kingdom. 1521 - Conclusion of Spanish conquest of the Mexica ("Aztec") empire in central Mexico 1531 - December 9th through 12th - Apparitions of Blessed Virgin Mary to Juan Diego; appearance of image of Virgin of Guadalupe on Juan Diego's tilma on December 12. 1545-48 - The Nican Mopohua, recounting the apparition story in the native language Nahuatl, likely written. 1548 - Juan Diego dies. 1666 - Formal investigation of the tilma and apparition story by the Church 1795 - Acid spilled accidentally on the tilma during cleaning of its frame. 1810 - Image of the Virgin of Guadalupe used as banner of the Hidalgo rebellion. 1921 - Bomb explodes in flower display in front of the tilma, but does not harm the image. 2002 - Canonization of St. Juan Diego on July 31. (Based mainly on Appendix B of Our Lady of Guadalupe, cited below). Summary: We discuss the Virgin of Guadalupe (Feast say December 12) and St. Juan Diego (Feast day December 9). Just as millions of northern and western Europeans left the Catholic Church as a result of the Protestant Reformation(s), millions of Native Americans entered the Catholic Church. One witness reported that by his count as many as nine million baptisms occurred in Mexico in the space of about 15 years in the early 16th century. The flood of conversions came after the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe appeared on the cloak (the "tilma") of an Indian named Eagle that Speaks, baptized as "Juan Diego." Over time the image has become iconic and ubiquitous in Mexican Catholicism. But hasn't modern science probably debunked the "miraculous" image on the tilma by now? Listen to our discussion of this vivid, unique Marian apparition and why it is something you need to know about. We also discuss how the Church generally evaluates Marian apparitions and private revelation. Sources and Further Reading: • Our Lady of Guadalupe: Mother of the Civilization of Love by Carl Anderson and Eduardo Chavez (Image, 2009) - Includes the Nican Mopohua in an appendix. • Mexican Phoenix: Our Lady of Guadalupe: Image and Tradition Across Five Centuries by D.A. Brading (Cambridge University Press, 2001). • Conquest: Montezuma, Cortes, and the Fall of Old Mexico by Hugh Thomas (Simon & Schuster, 1993). • A Still, Small Voice: A Practical Guide on Reported Revelations by Fr. Benedict Groeschel (Ignatius Press, 1993). Documentary: Guadalupe: A Living Image (2009) Music Credit: *Special Thank You to Paul Spring for allowing us to use his song "Itasca" from the album Borderline EP (2014)!