Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or “heated high flow” can deliver higher oxygen levels than nasal cannula It typically is used as an “intermediate” between oxygen via nasal cannula and other non-invasive positive pressure devices, such as BiPAP Can modify both the FiO2 and flow rate Maximum flow rate is typically 60 liters per minute (compare that to a typical breath that is 30-40 L/min) Humidification of HFNC is important due to risk of epistaxis from drying out the nasal mucosa Large energy expenditure to humidify airflow by a patient in respiratory distress, so humidified oxygen may help decrease this metabolic demand References Nishimura M. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects. Respir Care. 2016;61(4):529-541. doi:10.4187/respcare.04577 Hacquin A, Perret M, Manckoundia P, et al. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygenation in Older Patients with SARS-CoV-2-Related Acute Respiratory Failure. J Clin Med. 2021;10(16):3515. Published 2021 Aug 10. doi:10.3390/jcm10163515 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. Donate to EMM today!